Galaxy

The life and dead of Star, Birth to Cosmic legacy

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The stars, All the solar systems were born from the same form, but their ultimate ends were different. small mass Canis Major, a low-brightness star, has extremely intense surface temperatures from stars like Sirius B. From the Orion Belt, which is characterized by light emission and massive mass, to star giants like Betelgeure, there are different deaths.

The mass of the stars They are often classified by their characteristics such as surface temperature and light emission rates. The way stars die is also different according to these types. In the case of very massive giant stars, they explode and die as a supernova within a few million years after their birth. Similarly, if the stars are small in mass and have a very low burning rate, such as red stars, they exist for a long time, from the time of birth to billions..trillions of years. However, all the stars continue to exist, each with its own death.

Seven major of Star

Stars are classified into 7 major OBAFGKM classes based on their surface temperature. From right to left, from hottest to coldest. On the other hand, stars are divided into 9 categories based on their luminosity. Brown Dwarf, an unnamed star that is slightly larger than Jupiter and can undergo fusion at the center. White Dwarf, which is the size of the Earth and has half the mass of the Sun. Sub-dwarf Stars in the main sequence (Main Sequence Stars) that will normally burn for a long time in a stable state, such as yellow dwarfs and red dwarfs. Sub giant stars that are slightly brighter than main sequence stars. Giant stars like Rigel from Maung Koyyang constellation, Bright Giant, which is brighter than the current giants, Supergiant stars that are ten times more massive than the Sun, by mass; There are different types of stars, from the very large in brightness to the rarest hypergiant stars.

Sequence Star

Among the stars found in the current universe, main sequence stars are the most stable in terms of conditions and can continue to exist for years. Our mother star, the Sun, is a main sequence star. As I mentioned in last week’s post, the main fuel sources that make stars burn are hydrogen and helium, and hydrogen is a fusion reaction that creates new helium. There are two types of energy impact states that exist in most stars. That is the outward pressure (thermal pressure) caused by the fusion energy from the inside and the gravitational force that affects the inside from the outside. The outward pressure from the inside causes it to spread outward, and the gravitational pressure from the outside makes it denser inside against that pressure.

Most of the stars, including the sun, are usually affected by both of these forces being balanced.It is in a state of balance. It is a state of Hydrostatic Equilibrium where the force of propulsion and gravity are balanced. But as time passes, stars gradually run out of hydrogen fuel to fuel their combustion. When the hydrogen fuel in the central nucleus is depleted, the current equilibrium position tilts. As there is no more outward pressure from the inside, the compressive force from the outside wins out and makes the star’s central core denser. As the temperature rises, the remaining helium inside continues to fuse. The normal state is the fusion of lighter hydrogen into the slightly heavier element helium. However, the original source of fuel, hydrogen, is not left. In a situation where the temperature is getting higher and higher, helium is carbon, It continues to fuse into oxygen and other heavier elements. When the helium elements fuse and burn, a greater amount of energy is released, and the outer layers of the star will spread outwards at a faster rate.

Red giant stage

Our sun will also reach the red giant stage from the star blanket stage in the next 4 billion years. At that time, the size of the sun will be inflated many times than it is now, and the nearby planets such as Mercury, It will devour Venus and Mars as well as the planet Earth. The outer layers of the stars that will become red giants, including the Sun, will lose their gravitational pull over time and escape into space. At that time, the white star, which was many times smaller in size, stopped burning and ended quietly. About half of the star’s mass is in the outer shell that has just been released, and this layer of matter remains in the Planetary Nebula, a collection of gas and dust. At the center of the surrounding Planetary Nebula is a white star about the same size as Earth.

Dwarf Star ⭐

Although the white dwarf has been reduced in size many times, it still has almost half the mass of the original star, so it is incredibly dense compared to its size, and the temperature is about forty times hotter than the Sun. About 97 percent of all stars in the universe end their lives as dwarf stars. White dwarf stars can last for billions of trillions of years, and when the internal temperature drops, they turn into black dwarfs and disappear forever. Since the universe was only 13.8 billion years old, it is too far in time for the current white dwarfs to turn into black dwarfs.As it is only 8 billion, it is still too far in time for the current white dwarfs to turn into black dwarfs.As it is only 8 billion, it is still too far in time for the current white dwarfs to turn into black dwarfs.

Burn Hydrogen to Helium

Stars with masses 10 to 25 times the mass of our Sun suffer a different death. In such massive stars, when they run out of hydrogen to continue burning, they continue to burn helium. From there, heavier elements continue to be produced in the pollen. Gradually, these giant stars gained a lot of energy and got bigger and bigger. Some are more than 1,000 times larger than our Sun. Elemental reactions also continue and continue to burn until the iron fusion stage is reached. Once the star’s dust is packed with iron, there is no further fusion left.

At that time, the inner repulsive force will gradually be pulled by the external gravity, and the nuclei of the atoms will contract at a good speed until they are about to touch each other. An originally massive star will shrink hundreds of thousands of times smaller than it originally was, and the inner core will collapse. When the nuclei come close to touching each other, the energy from the inside is pushed outwards, creating a very strong shock wave and exploding as a supernova. The spectral waves emitted from this explosion are so bright that they can even illuminate the entire galaxy. After the big explosion, it continues to exist as dead neutron stars, only about the size of a city. Neutron stars have very dense masses, and some neutron stars are even denser than our Sun.

Mass of a Star

A star with a mass 30 times larger than the Sun will not be able to overcome the gravitational field of the star, and the star’s dust will shrink and collapse and continue to exist as a black hole. The gravity of these black holes is so strong that even light cannot escape. Fossil nebulae located in the graves of the stars, Clusters of gas clouds continue to travel through the universe at one time, and at another time they merge with each other. When they come together, they give birth to more stars. So the elements in the universe, The elements involved in the world, The elements in our bodies are the remnant particles left over from the deaths of stars. We humans are just a speck of gas in the universe.

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