Quark

Fundamental Mysteries of the Universe: Exploring the Smallest Particles

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The environment we all live in, The living world Have you ever wondered what the smallest thing in the universe is? 

Discover the smallest thing or Quark

If someone asked you what the smallest possible thing is, what would you say? If there is someone who answers that it is a flower of sand, There are those who say that it is a particle of lead, molecules, There are many people who will answer that atoms are the smallest. Going down from that level again.. dividing proton, Neutron There will be those who answer as electron. But there is the smallest unit that makes them up, Those who answer that it is Quark will be less in quantity. 

We humans have been trying to understand everything around us since the time when we were not well developed in terms of knowledge. What is this object composed of? Why this process happened and so on. A long time ago, the scientists of the universe, including the world, were fire, water, air, The basic law of land They believe that it is composed of only four elements. Even Socrates added air to it. 

Systematic Research

But when systematic research is strong, these ideas are dismissed. To understand nature Along with the science of systematic investigation to find solutions to the unknown, our understanding has increased exponentially. 

In the time of Socrates, fire, water, air, Everyone who has common knowledge of today’s science can see in their environment, We know that everything we know is made up of the elements on the periodic table of the elements in chemistry. These elements are made up of extremely small particles called atoms. The protons contained in those small particles, Neutron They are classified according to the number of electrons. For a long time, only these subatomic particles, the smallest possible things, As the most basic particle, scientists have considered it. They clearly believed that these particles could not be further divided into anything smaller than this. Until 1964, when we met the main protagonist named Quark. 

So .. what will that gap be? 

Quarks are protons, The smallest particles that make up neutrons. These guys have been around in the fledgling universe since 1 terasecond (10^-12 sec) after the Big Bang. We only know about their existence 13.7 billion years from now. Before that, Proton, There are no bodies smaller than neutrons and electrons. They have come to the point where particle physics is about to end.

Some of you may have heard of the particle accelerator. If you don’t know for sure what it is, it doesn’t matter. I’ll cover it in a separate post later. 

Physics and chemistry research

Particle accelerators have been widely used in physics and chemistry research since the mid-20th century. Scientists rely on particle accelerators to understand the ultimate foundations of existence. Basically, a particle accelerator accelerates particles to near the speed of light, and causes them to collide with each other. The researchers studied the particles that were separated from the explosions that came out of the collision, and how the particles interacted with each other. They speculated about what the state of the universe might have been like after the Big Bang. 

Irregular pattern or Quark 1964

Let’s go back to 1964, when the Stanford particle accelerator was experimenting with particles hitting each other as usual. When a proton in the nucleus of an atom collided with an electron, they noticed that the elements that were split apart moved in an irregular pattern. Those are quacks. Through this experiment, we were able to confirm the existence of quarks. Quarks have been known to exist by scientists long before that. But in the nature of science, this is considered true only when it can be tested and confirmed to be true. 

The quark is considered to be the smallest possible entity in the universe. Protons and neutrons are made up of quarks. As for the electron, it is believed that it is not composed of anything else. Electrons are the most basic particle level. It’s the same as a field. 

When the electrons hit the protons, the electrons bounce back in some places where they hit the protons. There are a total of 3 places where the electron rebounds. Of course, those places are remembered by the researchers. 

The inner structure of Quark

Researchers have known for the first time that quarks exist within the inner structure of protons. But it’s not over yet. What they also know is that quarks are not equal. Initially, we knew that there were two forms of quark, Up and Down. But actually there are four more, Top, Bottom, Strange and Charm. 

At least by mass. The two lightest corks are Up and Down. The following are Strange, Charm, Bottom and Top from smallest to largest mass. Top is not only the largest in terms of mass, The last type of cork was discovered in 1995. 

The main difference between these 6 quarks is mass. In some quarks, the content of electricity (charge) is divided. For example, Up, Top and Charm have +2/3 charge. The other three, Down, Bottom, and Stange, have -1/3. 

As we all know, protons are positive. Electrostatic. Positive charge +1. Neutrons have no electricity. It is electrically neutral and has a charge of 0. The main cause of these particles carrying different charges is the quarks just mentioned. Different quarks come together in different pairs to form the proton we know. Neutrons of course. For example, a proton has two up quarks. (+4/3). Next Down Quack has one. (-1/3) will be. If you look at this, there will be a net positive charge of +1. And if you look at the neutron, it has two bottom quarks and one top quark. (-2/3) + (+2/3) so two are even and 0 is left. Thus, the neutron is electrically charged. 

Quark group

A group of small quacks like that, What holds them together is the Strong Nuclear Force. Just as we call a proton and a neutron together a nucleus, these quarks are called a hadron. What carries that SNF is another particle called a gluon. It works like a photon. Photons carry electromagnetic energy; This guy is electromagnetic intensity. It is completely impossible to study gluons again. To separate them from the quarks, the amount of energy present in the moments after the Big Bang explosion, temperature Need pressure.

Another thing we know about quarks is that quark types do not always exist in the same order. For example, a Charm quark can change into a Strange Quark, and a Down quark can change into an Up quark.

Why are the other quark names so strange?

Up, Down, Top, Bottom quarks are +1/2 according to the Vector Matrix method. -1/2 and so on. (Based on the spin of particles in quantum mechanics). Next, according to Strange, it can be said (roughly) that quarks are made up of Mason-like particles that belong to the K particle category. Masons are usually in an unstable state. Although short-lived, mesons containing Strange-type quarks do not undergo a strange decay, so they gave it that name. Another charm is that the researchers who discovered this particle were quite desirable at first sight. He said that he was given the name ‘Charm’ because he felt strongly hypnotic and attractive. 

Quark exit in the universe

What many people don’t know is that among the quarks, the Up and Down quarks are the only quarks that exist naturally in the universe. Other types can only be found experimentally in particle accelerators, and most of them only exist for very short periods of time, making it difficult to study them thoroughly. According to the predictions, other types of quarks can be found in the central core fusion of stars. 

It’s been more than 50 years since scientists discovered the quark, but the story of these little guys still remains a tricky puzzle in particle physics. Science is a ‘truth-seeker’ trying to understand all of existence, so we are still trying to figure out the key to the tricky quack puzzle. The magnificence of the universe’s mysteries, The key to unlocking the secret doors is slowly getting closer.

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