Birth and Evolution of Stars

Birth and Evolution of Stars: Cosmic Drama of Creation and Destruction

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I think that almost everyone has seen the stars shining brightly above the dark night sky. They will also think about the question of how those big stars were born. Not the stars.. I think you have also wanted to know how the planets like the world we currently live in came to be. Today, in ZeroKSL’s regular cosmology section, we talk about how stars are born. Let’s study nature with the topic of how the planets came to be.

About 13.8 billion years ago, the Big Bang occurred, and matter and time were created simultaneously. From there, the universe began to be born, and stars began to be born between 100 and 200 million years after the Big Bang. From there, solar systems like our solar system emerged. It can be said that the Big Bang explosion produced everything… hundreds of stars, Huge clusters of galaxies, solar systems, Planets .. we can say that the origin of all these started from the Big Bang.

In the early stages of the universe’s existence, atoms could not be assembled into atoms, but basic particles such as quarks, It existed as a sea of ​​plasma scattered with neutrinos and electrons. At that time, the entire universe was at such a high temperature that atoms could not form together. Over time, as the universe expanded, the temperature gradually decreased. Four carpenters arrived who were about to build the natural world beautifully even at a temperature of 10 billion Kelvin. Those four carpenters

– Gravity

– Electromagnetic Force

– Strong Nuclear Force

– Four fundamental forces called Weak Nuclear Force (3F).

The first to work is nuclear intensity called SNF. He is the force that causes the scattered elementary particles to gather together and form the pollen nucleus of atoms. Because of this, the quarks in the plasma sea form a group of three close to each other. According to the amount of electricity involved, whether it is a proton or a neutron, it splits up again. If the proton, two Up qwark, It is composed of a single down quark, and if the neutron is an up quark, They are composed of two Downs. Also called a nucleon.

Protons Group

Protons are grouped together in a row. Because of this SNF, the small particles that are neutrons have already started to gather together as the nucleus of the atom. From there, the second duty is electromagnetic force. Many people know that the nucleus of an atom is positive (positively charged) and the electrons are negative (negatively charged). Thanks to SNF, when the positively charged nucleus pulls the uncharged electrons around it from the point where the atoms are collected as pollen, hydrogen atoms with a nucleus in the middle and electrons around it begin to form.

Nebulae

Just like that, there are large gas clouds in the universe, called nebulae, where hydrogen and helium gases gather. Many stars, including our mother sun, were born from these nebulae. If the mother of the stars is a cloud of gas, the hand that will give birth to it can be said to be gravity. According to Newton’s law of gravitation, which you learned in ninth grade, everything that has mass attracts each other. The dust from the gas cloud The gases are pulling each other.

The two groups pull one group.. It becomes three groups and pulls the two groups. After 20,000 years of this state of protostar, the gas clouds and the gas ball are thicker than ever. He reached a position where he grew up. Surrounding it are large gas disks, and these large clusters are even larger than our solar system. In the central core, the elements are already a very dense hot ball due to the strong G force.

The hydrogen atoms in the innermost core are under strong gravitational pressure. When the elements in the center are compressed to become more and more compact, according to the law of chemistry, it becomes heat up… the temperature rises. Star embryos are smaller in size, more compact denser, It gets hotter and the central core/pollen temperature approaches 15 million degrees Celsius. When the temperature reaches that temperature, the atoms inside undergo a series of ‘Fusion’ (nuclear reactions) and a star is born from the radiation of a lot of energy.

How the planets happened?

As for how the planets happened, I just said that in the protostar embryonic stage, there is a hot gas in the middle and a gas circle around it (a gas disk – accretion disk). That gas circle also has their own style of dust, Proto-planets, as the elements gather together, are parallel to the mother star at their center as small planets. From there, the solid rocks gathered together are the world, They are rocky planets like Mars, and when gas accumulates, they form giant gas planets like Saturn and Jupiter. This explanation is called the Nebular Hypothesis, and is widely accepted in the scientific community as the formation of the solar system.

Planets and the planetary sequence

This hypothesis also explains the rotation of the planets and the planetary sequence. The orbits of the stars over the planets differ depending on the direction in which the elements around the protostellar orbit their mother in the original nebula in which they formed. For example, in our solar system, all the planets, including Earth, revolve around their parent star in a counter-clockwise direction. If we talk about the planetary system, at the beginning of the solar system, the solar wind and heat waves from the sun caused the gas planets to move away, and the rocky planets, which are composed of solid rocks, were not too far away.

That’s why Mercury, Venus Earth and Mars are in the east according to the planetary order, and Jupiter, which is made up of gases, Saturn and Uranus covered in ice and gas are far behind. This is a nebular cloud and protostars, When they were proto-planets, the innermost matter felt more hot and remained as solid matter, and the cooler backside matter could help form gas planets.

Stars are born in the same way but die in different ways. the stars Since we already know about the birth of planets,

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